We are in an age now of wave theory, quantum mechanics as a way of looking at the universe. Consolidation in agriculture is the shift toward fewer and larger farms. What do we do? They – the government – subsidize the production. 21. Henry Wallace was Roosevelt’s Secretary of Agriculture and he also ran for president back in the 40s. Image credit: Michael Milli and Brent Kim. Began in Great Britain in 1780s Improvements in agriculture raised food production lower food prices more disposable income and raised demand for manufactured goods Rapid population growth Failure of traditional cottage industries to keep up with the huge demand of cotton clothes throughout Britain The Early Phase of Revolution They invested in more agricultural innovations, changing agriculture even more. It was the start of everything. You don’t find anything like that in nature. 26 Petraň, Joseph, “A propos de la formation des régions de la production spécialisée en Europe centrale,’ Second International Conference of Economic History, Aix-en-Provence 1962 (Paris: Mouton, 1965), pp. Doing this by hand involves an enormous amount of time and effort. The figure remained high, but was declining steadily, throughout the early phase of industrialization between the 1960s and 1990s, but in view of the rapid population growth this amounted to a rapid growth of the industrial sector in absolute terms, of up to 11 percent per year during the period. 2 So, just because it’s labeled organic doesn’t mean that it’s healthful and safe for you. History of technology - History of technology - Agriculture: Another major area that began to show signs of profound change in the 18th century was agriculture. Rashid – Monsanto is a very large chemical company. And the principal grains around the world are corn, wheat, rice and then there’s cotton as well. Johns Hopkins Center for a Livable Future, 2013. In the late 1950s, U.S. Secretary of Agriculture Ezra Taft Benson exemplified government pressure to consolidate when he called on farmers to “get big or get out.”15. What are some of those problems. If you come to our site you’re able to get food, you can see it right there in the ground growing and you’re able to bring it home. Heather – Now when you’re talking about hybridizing you’re talking about this effort to sort of standardize crop production so you have corn that’s the same height and you have the same type of corn and so forth, right? 23. But if you defoliated it all then you could get the helicopters up there are that could spot the troops as they were moving along. Caller (5) – I want to give thanks to brother Rashid for the information that he’s giving. Heather – Wasn’t Agent Orange first used in Vietnam? 2006. As an ‘organic’ farmer he said he had to unlearn virtually everything he acquired from the Soil Science degree, and I understand that as well. 1997;83(5):531-41. However, all farming generally relies on techniques to expand and maintain the … Washington D.C.; 2010. History of Industrialization. Mutual relationship between industrialization and agriculture. Let me try to explain. But if you’re a small farmer and you’ve been convinced to use this new technology that is foreign to your farming history, you have to go borrow money to put in this crop. Let’s sell it to the farmers.” So they give it to the farmers and the farmers grow more crops, but the chemicals also kill everything that’s in the soil. By hand, a person can thresh roughly 15 to 40 kg of grain per hour, usually by beating the harvested crop against a hard surface to shake the grain loose from the inedible chaff that surrounds it. So the hybridization (see note #2 below) of the crops means there’s certain things you have to have. They invented round-up some years ago that is very efficient in keeping the broadleaf weeds out of the farmland. 364 – 365. July 2011 Audio of Interview with Rashid Nuri, We think that we can try to dominate and control rather than be in harmony with the natural order of things…Those chemicals kill everything that’s in the soil. So, no, it’s not just America, and the western system its being exported all over the world. Farmers were also motivated by economies of scale—the economic advantage of producing larger numbers of products. The importance of understanding this history cannot be over-stressed. The grasses change over seasons. They started breeding programs to hybridize the food and then they standardized it so that all corn is the same size and harvested at the same time.Then we had a man named Norman Borlaug. Networks, Power, and Dependency in the Agrifood Industry. New Haven: Yale University Press; 2005. Rashid – I call that “in-put substitution” as the commercial farms put the cows in a feedlot, feed them grains and they’re still grain fed. War is a very, very profitable enterprise. 1998;56(1):15-33. 4  By comparison, just 17% of U.S. agricultural receipts were from non-meat food for people. If you’re raising chickens or if you’re raising cows I approve of that grassland. This lesson will look at t… Rashid – That’s exactly right. The historian Arnold Toynbee created the idea that between 1750 and 1830, there was an 'Agricultural Revolution'. Rashid – And the irony is that I’m using elephant dung now to grow food. The processes were time-consuming, making the available products very limited and expensive.